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力學試驗


       拉伸試驗是指在承受軸向拉伸載荷下測定材料特性的試驗方法。利用拉伸試驗得到的數據可以確定材料的彈性極限、伸長率、彈性模量、比例極限、面積縮減量、拉伸強度、屈服點、屈服強度和其它拉伸性能指標。從高溫下進行的拉伸試驗可以得到蠕變數據。

        夏比沖擊試驗是用以測定金屬材料抗缺口敏感性(韌性)的試驗。制備有一定形狀和尺寸的金屬試樣,使其具有U形缺口或V形缺口,在夏比沖擊試驗機上處于簡支梁狀態,以試驗機舉起的擺錘作一次沖擊,使試樣沿缺口沖斷,用折斷時擺錘重新升起高度差計算試樣的吸收功,即為Aku和Akv??稍诓煌瑴囟认伦鳑_擊試驗。

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